Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android

For instructor materials including Power Points, Answers to Clinical Encounter Questions, please contact

Content Update

September 08, 2022

Newly Approved Azstarys for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Azstarys® is a central nervous system stimulant medication that is a combination of serdexmethylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate. In 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Azstarys® for the treatment of ADHD in patients six years of age and older. Azstarys may be beneficial to patients who require one medication that provides both prolonged symptom management and immediate symptom control, due to its unique combination of long-acting serdexmethylphenidate and immediate-acting dexmethylphenidate.



Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Explain accepted criteria necessary for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  2. Recommend a therapeutic plan, including drug selection, initial doses, dosage forms, and monitoring parameters, for a patient with ADHD.

  3. Differentiate among the available pharmacologic agents used for ADHD with respect to pharmacology and pharmaceutical duration of action.

  4. Recommend alternative agents and/or adjunctive agents as clinically indicated.

  5. Address potential cost–benefit issues associated with pharmacotherapy of ADHD.

  6. Recommend strategies for minimizing adverse effects of ADHD medications.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. It can have a severe impact on a patient’s ability to function in both academic and social environments. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to compensate for areas of deficit.


image This disorder usually begins in young children and must occur before 12 years of age to meet current diagnostic criteria. In the United States, ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder that affects children.1 ADHD has been diagnosed in approximately 11% of school-aged children.2 ADHD occurs more than twice as often in school-aged boys than girls.3

Although ADHD generally is considered a childhood disorder, symptoms can persist into adolescence and adulthood. The prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to be 2.5%; majority of adults with ADHD have symptoms that manifested in childhood.3,4 Furthermore, problems associated with ADHD (eg, social, marital, academic, career, anxiety, depression, smoking, and substance abuse problems) increase with the transition of patients into adulthood. Untreated adults with ADHD have high rates of psychopathology, substance abuse, and social and occupational dysfunction.


image The exact pathologic cause of ADHD has not been identified. ADHD is generally thought of as a disorder of self-regulation or response inhibition and cognitive deficits.5 Patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD have difficulty maintaining self-control, resisting distractions, concentrating on ideas, and often alternate between inattentiveness to overexcitement.3,6

image Dysfunction of the neurotransmitters is thought to key in the pathology of ADHD. Norepinephrine is responsible for maintaining alertness and attention; dopamine is responsible for regulating ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.