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Content Update

August 21, 2023

Ending the HIV epidemic through preventative measures: HIV remains a global challenge, with millions affected and comprehensive strategies to end the epidemic set by UNAIDS and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Despite progress, many lack access to prevention and treatment. Recent advancements focus on preventing perinatal transmission, simplifying regimens for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and achieving virologic suppression through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy to reduce transmission. Pharmacist involvement is pivotal in disseminating prevention strategies, personalized interventions, and resources, to end the HIV epidemic.

Content Update

July 07, 2023

Lenacapavir for Treatment of Multidrug-resistant HIV-1 Infection: Treatment for multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection is challenging. Lenacapavir is a long-acting oral and subcutaneous medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in combination with effective antiretroviral background therapy in treatment-experienced individuals with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection who cannot achieve virologic suppression on background therapy alone due to resistance, intolerance, or safety consideration.

Content Update

March 09, 2023

Maribavir: A New Treatment For Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infections: Maribavir is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or disease refractory to treatment with ganciclovir, valganciclovir, cidofovir, or foscarnet. Maribavir demonstrated efficacy against resistant CMV and was associated with fewer severe adverse effects compared to other treatments. This medication has the potential for several drug interactions which can be managed via dose modification or close monitoring. Overall, it’s well tolerated and has a unique role within the treatment of CMV when there is resistance or patients cannot tolerate alternative agents.



Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Explain the routes of transmission for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its natural disease progression.

  2. Identify typical and atypical signs and symptoms of acute and chronic HIV infection.

  3. Identify the desired therapeutic outcomes for patients living with HIV.

  4. Recommend appropriate first-line pharmacotherapy interventions for patients with HIV infection.

  5. Describe the components of a monitoring plan to assess effectiveness and adverse effects of pharmacotherapy for HIV infection.

  6. Educate patients about the disease state, appropriate lifestyle modifications, and drug therapy required for effective treatment.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV primarily targets CD4+ T-lymphocytes, which are critical to proper immune system function. If left untreated, most patients experience a prolonged asymptomatic period followed by rapid, progressive immunodeficiency. AIDS is defined by a CD4+ cell count below 200 cells/mm3 (200 × 106/L), a CD4+ cell percentage of total lymphocytes less than 14% (0.14), or the presence of one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) AIDS-defining conditions, such as pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi sarcoma, and ...

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