Chapter 94. Ovarian Cancer
What family history would suggest that patient needs to be screened for hereditary risk for ovarian cancer?
A. Having a mother and aunt diagnosed with breast cancer
B. Having two cousins diagnosed with ovarian cancer
C. Having a mother with breast cancer and sister with ovarian cancer
D. Having a grandmother and cousin diagnosed with cervical cancer
Option A: Incorrect. An aunt is not a first-degree relative.
Option B: Incorrect. Cousins are not first-degree relatives.
Option C: Correct. To have a hereditary risk you have to have more than two first-degree relatives diagnosed with ovarian cancer.
Option D: Incorrect. Grandmother and cousin are not first-degree relatives.
Which of the following may decrease risk of developing ovarian cancer?
A. Use of ovulation stimulatory agents
B. Use of omega-3 nutritional supplements
C. Long-term use of estrogen replacement therapy
D. Long-term use of oral contraceptives
Option A: Incorrect. Ovulation stimulatory agents increase the risk of ovarian cancer based on the incessant ovulation hypothesis.
Option B: Incorrect. Omega-3 nutritional supplements have not shown any role in ovarian cancer prevention.
Option C: Incorrect. Long-term estrogen has been shown to be a potential risk factor.
Option D: Correct. Oral contraceptives stop ovulation and have been shown to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.
A 27-year-old woman presents to your clinic with concerns about her risk of ovarian cancer. She has a mother with history of BRCA1 positive ovarian cancer that died at age of 48 and sister with breast cancer at the age of 34. She is recently engaged and has been discussing family planning with her fiancé so wants to know her options. Which of the following would be the best option for a premenopausal woman with a family history of BRCA1 positive cancer to prevent ovarian cancer?
A. Regular annual pelvic examination
B. Routine transvaginal ultrasonography and CA-125 level
C. Long-term oral contraceptive use
D. Prophylatic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
Option A: Incorrect. Pelvic examination is not effective to detect ovarian masses.