Chapter 92. Prostate Cancer
Which of the following is true regarding the hormonal regulation of the prostate gland?
A. Testosterone is the most prominent growth signal to the prostate cells. Ninety-five percent of all testosterone is produced in men by the adrenal glands.
B. Testosterone binds to the testosterone receptor in the nuclear membrane, translocates into the nucleus, and causes increased DNA replication of prostate cancer cells.
C. 5-α reductase converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is responsible for cell growth in the prostate.
D. LH and FSH release results in increased DHT from the testes. Increased DHT is cleaved into testosterone, which drives prostate cell growth.
Option A: Incorrect. The majority of testosterone is produced in the testes, not adrenal glands.
Option B: Incorrect. DHT binds to the AR receptor, not testosterone to the testosterone.
Option C: Correct. Testosterone is converted into DHT by 5-α reductase. DHT binds the androgen receptor and this complex drives growth in prostate cells.
Option D: Incorrect. LH/FSH release leads to increased testosterone, not DHT.
Which of the following does not increase the risk for prostate cancer?
A. African-American ancestry
C. Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Option A: Incorrect. African-Americans have an increased risk of prostate cancer, twice that of Caucasians.
Option B: Incorrect. Risk of prostate cancer increases with each decade of life.
Option C: Correct. BPH has not been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.
Option D: Incorrect. Men with a father or brother with a history of prostate cancer have a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer compared to the general population. Approximately 5% to 10% of prostate cancers are thought to be inherited.
Which of the following is true regarding the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer with the regimen docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks with prednisone 5 mg twice daily)?
A. Docetaxel primarily undergoes hepatic elimination, so patients with hepatic failure may not be eligible for treatment with docetaxel.
B. Docetaxel should only be used in patients who have had progressive disease while being treated with cabazitaxel.
C. Docetaxel primarily ...