Chapter 42. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Which of the following statements about ADHD is true?
A. Prevalence is much higher in girls than boys during grade school.
B. ADHD is a diagnosis confined to children that should not be used in adolescents or adults.
C. Patients with ADHD frequently have other comorbidities such as conduct disorder.
D. According to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD, symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity or impulsivity must be present before 6 years of age.
Option A: Incorrect. Prevalence of ADHD is about twice as high in males as it is in females.
Option B: Incorrect. While ADHD is considered a childhood diagnosis, it can persist into adolescence and adulthood.
Option C: Correct. Patient with ADHD often have other comorbidities such as learning disabilities, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression.
Option D: Incorrect. According to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, symptoms of ADHD must be present before the age of 12, not 6.
Management strategies for minimizing the side effects of stimulant medication in ADHD patients might include:
A. Administering a stimulant dose after meals if decreased appetite is occurring
B. Changing to longer-acting stimulant in the case of rebound symptoms
C. Advising administration of a stimulant dose earlier in the day if the child is experiencing insomnia at bedtime
Options A–D: All are appropriate management strategies for the side effects of ADHD.
Appropriate medication education for the parent of a child prescribed atomoxetine includes:
A. This medication may take up to 4 weeks to achieve full effect
B. In studies, this medication appears to be more effective than stimulants for the treatment of ADHD
C. This medication is usually better tolerated than stimulant medication and does not appear to affect growth rate or weight
D. This medication can often cause low blood pressure and dizziness
Option A: Correct. Atomoxetine may take up to 4 weeks for full therapeutic effect.
Option B: Incorrect. Atomoxetine is more effective than placebo but not more effective than stimulants.