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Chapter 27. Fluids and Electrolytes

Student Questions

Which of the following medications is most likely to cause hyperkalemia?

A. Albuterol

B. Regular insulin

C. Omeprazole

D. Lisinopril

Answer: D

Option A: Incorrect. Albuterol can produce hypokalemia.

Option B: Incorrect. Insulin can produce hypokalemia.

Option C: Incorrect. Proton pump inhibitors can cause hypomagnesemia which can lead to hypokalemia and hypocalcemia.

Option D: Correct. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors can cause hyperkalemia.

GE is a 66-year-old man admitted for elective knee surgery. Patient parameters are height 178 cm (5 ft, 10 in) and weight of 75 kg (165 pounds). Determine the patient's fluid requirement?

A. 1545 mL/day

B. 2600 mL/day

C. 3000 mL/day

D. 3400 mL/day

Answer: B

Option A: Incorrect. Using the equation from Table 27–2, this is incorrect.

Option B: Correct. Using the equation from Table 27–2, this is correct.

Option C: Incorrect. Using the equation from Table 27–2, this is incorrect.

Option D: Incorrect. Using the equation from Table 27–2, this is incorrect.

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Table 27–2 Useful Calculations for the Estimation of Patient Maintenance Fluid Requirements
Neonate (1–10 kg) = 100 mL/kg
Child (10–20 kg) = 1000 mL + 50 mL for each kilogram > 10
Adult (> 20 kg) = 1500 mL + 20 mL for each kilogram > 20

A 54-year-old man is admitted to the intensive care unit following a motor vehicle accident. His sodium concentration increased from 139 mEq/L (mmol/L) on admission to 155 mEq/L (mmol/L) 3 days after admission. His weight at admission was 80 kg (176 pounds). Which of the following most closely approximates the free water deficit in this patient?

A. 3 L

B. 5 L

C. 8 L

D. 10 L

Answer: B

Option A: Incorrect. Using the equation that water deficit (L) = TBW × [(serum sodium/140) – 1], this is incorrect.

Option B: Correct. Using the equation that water deficit (L) = TBW × [(serum sodium/140) – 1], this is correct.

Option ...

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