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June 12, 2019
Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection: IV antibiotics have long been considered superior to oral antibiotics for serious infections based on the misconception that IV therapy is “stronger” than oral therapy. A recent randomized trial (“Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection”, or “OVIVIA”) found that oral antibiotic therapy was noninferior to IV antibiotic therapy during the first 6 weeks for complex bone and joint infections. The OVIVA trial may impact standard-of-care for bone and joint infections and lessen (or ultimately eliminate) the need for IV antibiotics for 6 weeks in select patients. Using oral therapy in appropriate patients may lead to decreased length of hospital stay, fewer adverse events, fewer IV-related complications, and overall reduced healthcare costs.
Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:
List common risk factors for osteomyelitis.
Discuss the pathophysiology of osteomyelitis.
Compare and contrast the classic signs and symptoms of acute and chronic osteomyelitis.
Evaluate microbiology culture data and other laboratory tests and imaging studies utilized for diagnosis of osteomyelitis.
List the most common pathogens isolated in acute and chronic osteomyelitis.
Develop a treatment plan for osteomyelitis.
Recommend parameters to monitor antimicrobial therapy for effectiveness and toxicity.
Describe how principles of antimicrobial stewardship can be applied to the management of osteomyelitis.
Educate patients regarding lifestyle modifications that may impact disease outcomes.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that may be either an acute or chronic process. The inflammatory response associated with acute osteomyelitis can lead to bone necrosis and subsequent chronic infection.1 Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, are most commonly responsible for both acute and chronic infections.1–8 Diagnosis and treatment present significant challenges to clinicians due to the complex nature of osteomyelitis.1,2 Medical management is considered the cornerstone of treatment for acute infections; however, surgical intervention in addition to antimicrobial therapy is necessary to achieve cure for chronic infections.1,2
Osteomyelitis is most often classified by duration of disease and route of infection.1,2,9
Two major osteomyelitis classification schemes exist. The Cierny-Mader classification focuses on the affected portion of bone, physiologic status of the patient, and factors impacting local vascularity.1 In contrast, the Waldvogel classification scheme categorizes disease based on route of infection (hematogenous or contiguous) and duration of disease (acute versus chronic).9 Using this classification scheme, osteomyelitis secondary to a contiguous focus can be further subdivided into infections with or without vascular insufficiency. Typical bone involvement in osteomyelitis depends on the route of infection.