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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Explain the etiology and pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD).

  2. Identify the signs and symptoms of MDD.

  3. Outline the treatment goals for a patient with MDD.

  4. Recommend pharmacotherapy given a specific patient with MDD.

  5. Develop a monitoring plan for a specific patient with MDD which includes the assessment of efficacy as well as adverse effects.

  6. Predict, prevent, identify, and resolve potential drug-related problems.

  7. Educate patients and caregivers on the proper use of antidepressant therapy.

INTRODUCTION

Major depression is a common, seriously disabling, disorder nonresponsive to volitional efforts to feel better. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience pervasive symptoms affecting mood, thinking, physical health, work, and relationships. Suicide often results when MDD is inadequately diagnosed and treated.1

Over and under detection of MDD is an important consideration. Primary care providers have become increasingly involved in the management of MDD. Studies show that over detection of MDD can outnumber missed cases.1 Antidepressants account for 15 of the top 200 prescription drugs dispensed in the United States.2 Inadequate treatment remains a serious concern.3

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGY

The lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates for MDD are 16.2% and 6.6%, respectively.4 Women are twice as likely as men to experience MDD.5 In the United States, incidence peaks in the twenties. Many patients with MDD have comorbid psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and substance use disorders.5

Patient Encounter Part 1

A 43-year-old woman presents to the psychiatry clinic with complaints of depressed mood, poor sleep, and decreased appetite. She has lost 25 pounds (11.4 kg) in the last 2 months. She also has been isolating herself from other people, and has had crying spells. She says that she has been thinking about committing suicide, but she does not have a specific plan.

What symptoms of MDD does she have?

What medical or psychiatric issues could be contributing to her symptoms?

What additional information do you need to know before creating a treatment plan for this patient?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease.6

The etiology of depression is complex and is hypothetically due to a change in the brain neurotransmitters, primarily norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA).7

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

The cause of MDD is unknown but is probably multifactorial. Multiple theories abound, and practitioners suggest that development of depression likely involves a complex interaction of genetic predisposition, psychological stressors, and underlying pathophysiology. There are no currently accepted unifying theories to adequately explain the pathophysiology of depression.7

Genetics

First-degree relatives of MDD patients are about two ...

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