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Content Update

May 19, 2021

Vyepti (eptinezumab-jjmr): A CGRP Antagonist for Migraine Prevention: Multiple treatment options are available that reduce the frequency and severity of both episodic and chronic migraines. Vyepti (eptinezumab-jjmr) is the fourth calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibody approved for preventing migraines. In contrast to other agents in this class that are administered subcutaneously, eptinezumab-jjmr is given by a 30-minute intravenous infusion every 3 months.

Content Update

May 1, 2020

Lasmiditan (Reyvow) Approved for Acute Migraine Headache Treatment: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved lasmiditan (Reyvow) for the acute treatment of migraine headache with or without aura in adults. Lasmiditan is a first-in-class selective serotonin 1F (5-HT1F) receptor agonist that lacks the vasoconstrictive properties of some abortive migraine therapies. In phase 3 trials, lasmiditan showed significantly more pain relief 2 hours post-dose compared to placebo; however, the majority of patients remained symptomatic. Single-use data show that lasmiditan has mild-to-moderate CNS side effects, and long-term safety studies are underway. To date, no studies have compared the efficacy of lasmiditan to other migraine abortive therapies such as the triptans or CGRP inhibitors.

Content Update

November 15, 2019

Newly Approved Medications for Migraines: The U.S. FDA approved three new medications with novel mechanism of action for migraine prophylaxis. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonists, erenumab (Aimovig®), fremanezumab (Ajovy®), and galcanezumab (Emgality®) were approved in 2018 for migraine prophylaxis.

The CGRP antagonist therapies were approved for migraine prophylaxis in adults because of its hypothesized role in mediating trigeminovascular pain transmission and vasodilation activity for neurogenic inflammation. Although these medications appear effective, more data are needed regarding their long-term safety as well as use in special populations. All three therapies are available in the United States.



Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Differentiate types of headache syndromes based on clinical features.

  2. Recommend nonpharmacologic measures for headache treatment and prevention.

  3. Determine when the pharmacologic treatment of headache is indicated.

  4. Construct individualized treatment regimens for the acute and chronic management of headache syndromes.

  5. Monitor headache treatment to ensure its safety, tolerability, and efficacy.


Headache is a common medical complaint with approximately 50% of the adult population experiencing at least one headache per year.1 image Even when persistent or recurrent, headaches are usually a benign primary condition; secondary headaches are caused by an underlying medical disorder and may be medical emergencies. Primary headache syndromes are the focus of this chapter. Patients may seek headache care from multiple providers. All clinicians should be familiar with the various types of headache, clinical indicators suggesting the need for urgent medical attention or specialist referral, and nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic options for treatment. image The International Headache Society ...

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