Chapter 89. Breast Cancer
Annual estimates of new breast cancer cases in the United States is comprised of which of the following?
A. Women and men with invasive disease only.
B. Women only with invasive disease.
C. Women and men with invasive and noninvasive disease.
D. Women only with invasive and noninvasive disease.
Option A: Correct. New case estimates include diagnoses of invasive breast cancer occurring in both sexes.
Option B: Incorrect. Approximately 1% of all breast cancers are diagnosed in males.
Option C: Incorrect. Noninvasive or in-situ diseases are not included in new case estimates.
Option D: Incorrect. Both women only and in-situ disease components of the answer are incorrect.
The woman at greatest risk for developing breast cancer is:
A. Caucasian, 45 years old, no family history, BRCA mutation negative, nulliparous.
B. Caucasian, 35 years old, BRCA mutation positive, mother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 45, one teenage daughter.
C. Caucasian, 65 years old, BRCA mutation negative, grandmother with breast cancer, two children.
D. Caucasian, 75 years old, no family history, BRCA mutation status unknown, never married.
Option A: Incorrect. Although without children and sporadic breast cancers do occur, this woman does not have the greatest risk features.
Option B: Correct. Though young, a patient testing positive for BRCA gene mutation has an extraordinarily high risk for breast cancer in their lifetime.
Option C: Incorrect. Though diagnoses of breast cancer increase with age, this patient has relatively low risk factors.
Option D: Incorrect. Though diagnoses of breast cancer increase with age and BRCA status is unknown, this patient has otherwise relatively low risk factors.
Chemoprevention of breast cancer:
A. Has not been demonstrated in clinical trials to date.
B. Reduces the risk of developing all intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer.
C. Is possible with the aromatase inhibitors in pre- and postmenopausal women.
D. Can be accomplished with tamoxifen in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Option A: Incorrect. Results of several clinical trials demonstrated significant reduction in new breast cancer diagnoses with SERMs ...