Chapter 48. Contraception
All of the following are the functional phases of the menstrual cycle except:
Option A: Incorrect. This is the phase of the menstrual cycle in which the ovaries mature; controlled by estradiol.
Option B: Incorrect. This is the phase of the menstrual cycle in which the ova or ovules are discharged from the ovary; occurs around day 14.
Option C: Correct. Implantation is not a phase of the menstrual cycle.
Option D: Incorrect. Menstruation is the final phase of the menstrual cycle; the process during which blood and other materials form the lining of the uterus and are discharged.
Rapid return of fertility would be least likely to occur upon discontinuation of which of the following contraceptives:
Option A: Incorrect. "Rapid" return (within 2–4 weeks) of fertility is expected.
Option B: Correct. Return of fertility may be delayed for 6 to 12 months (median 10 months) after discontinuation.
Option C: Incorrect. "Rapid" return is expected after pill discontinuation (pregnancy rates estimated at ~50% of women in first 3 months after stopping the pill).
Option D: Incorrect. Similar to CHCs, "rapid" return (within 6 weeks) of fertility is expected.
CHCs work by inhibiting ovulation. The progestin component of CHCs works mainly by suppressing which of the following hormones:
A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
B. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
C. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Option A: Incorrect. GnRH is not directly affected by CHCs.
Option B: Correct. LH is thought to be suppressed by the progestin component.
Option C. Incorrect. The estrogen component of CHCs is believed to be most active in suppressing FSH.
Option D. Incorrect. GH is not directly affected by CHCs.
Potential risks associated with the use of oral contraceptives include all of the following except: