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Diabetes Mellitus

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Content Update

November 15, 2019

Semaglutide: The First Oral GLP-1 Receptor Agonist: In September 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved semaglutide (Rybelsus, Novo Nordisk) for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The glucacon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a recommended second-line, add-on therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM who are at high-risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) events. However, agents with proven CV benefit should be used preferentially. In the PIONEER 6 trial, oral semaglutide did not significantly reduce the risk of major CV events, but it did significantly reduce CV and all-cause mortality. Oral semaglutide is a welcome option for treatment of T2DM in patients who would benefit from weight loss and are at high-risk of atherosclerotic CV disease but who prefer an oral dosage form.

Content Update

May 17, 2019

Pharmacotherapy Recommendations for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular or Chronic Kidney Disease: The 2019 guideline update for management of diabetes mellitus strengthened the recommendations for specific agents in the setting of coexisting chronic disease states such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These recommendations incorporate recently published literature regarding the cardiovascular and renal benefit of agents in the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and sodium-glucose cotransportor-2 inhibitor (SLGT2i) classes. In patients with established ASCVD, an agent with proven cardiovascular benefit should be utilized. In patients with HF, SGLT2i can provide additional benefit. In patients with established CKD, canagliflozin can decrease risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. These agents should be considered first line add-on therapy to metformin and lifestyle changes in patients who need additional glycemic control.

Content Update

May 10, 2019

Beneficial Cardiorenal Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a significant risk factor for additional health problems, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular events. Current guidelines suggest use of an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 agonist for T2D patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or CKD but do not address cardiorenal outcomes in patients without ASCVD or CKD. Three recent clinical trials provide evidence of cardiorenal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2D. The two drugs evaluated, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, prevented and reduced hospitalizations due to heart failure and progressive kidney disease. The studies included patients with and without prior cardiovascular events, as well as varying levels of kidney function, and found no heterogeneity. Together with the known beneficial effects of empagliflozin, this new information indicates that cardiorenal benefits are a class effect of SGLT2 inhibitors.



Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Discuss the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM).

  2. Distinguish clinical differences in type 1, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

  3. List screening and diagnostic criteria ...

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