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Chapter 26. Chronic and End-Stage Renal Disease

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Which of the following would not hasten the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)?

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A. Cigarette smoking

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B. High blood pressure

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C. Hyperglycemia

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D. Low birth weight

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E. Proteinuria

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CY is a 42-year-old Asian woman with the following laboratory values: eGFR 48 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.46 mL/s/m2) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio 15 mg/g creatinine (1.7 mg/mmol creatinine). How would you classify her CKD?

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A. GFR category 2; Albuminuria category A1

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B. GFR category 3a; Albuminuria category A1

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C. GFR category 3b; Albuminuria category A2

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D. GFR category 4; Albuminuria category A2

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E. GFR category 5; Albuminuria category A3

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JF is a 52-year-old Caucasian man with a history of polycystic kidney disease (PCKD) who presents for follow-up. His laboratory values indicate an eGFR 35 ml/min/1.73 m2 (0.34 ml/s/m2) and urine albumin:creatine ratio of 45 mg/g creatinine (5.1 mg/mmol creatinine). His BP today was 135/86 mm Hg, which is consistent with the BP readings he has been taking at home. He is currently taking no antihypertensives. Which of the following treatments would you recommend to control his blood pressure?

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A. Amlodipine 5 mg orally daily

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B. Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg orally daily

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C. Lisinopril 10 mg orally daily

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D. Metoprolol 25 mg orally twice daily

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E. No treatment is necessary as his blood pressure is at goal.

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JF is a 38-year-old African American man with hypertension. He was born with one kidney and dropped out of school at age 7. His father is currently receiving hemodialysis. He does not smoke cigarettes, but does drink alcohol occasionally. Which of the following is not a risk factor for CKD?

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A. African American ethnicity

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B. Alcohol consumption

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C. Born with one kidney

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D. Family history of kidney disease

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E. Low education level

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Which of the following describes the mechanism by which sodium balance is maintained in CKD?

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