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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Compare and contrast the definitions of syndromes related to sepsis.

  2. Identify the pathogens associated with sepsis.

  3. Discuss the pathophysiology of sepsis as it relates to pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators.

  4. Identify patient symptoms as early or late sepsis and evaluate diagnostic and laboratory tests for patient treatment and monitoring.

  5. Assess complications of sepsis and discuss their impact on patient outcomes.

  6. Design desired treatment outcomes for septic patients.

  7. Formulate a treatment and monitoring plan (pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic) for septic patients.

  8. Evaluate patient response and devise alternative treatment regimens for nonresponding septic patients.

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INTRODUCTION

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KEY CONCEPT Sepsis occurs across a continuum of physiologic stages in response to infection which manifests as systemic inflammation, coagulation, and tissue hypoperfusion, potentially leading to organ dysfunction known as severe sepsis.1 The American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine have defined the nomenclature to standardize sepsis terminology. (Table 82–1).2,3 Physiologic parameters categorize patients as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock.2

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Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 82–1Diagnostic Criteria for Sepsis, Severe Sepsis, and Septic Shock
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EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGY

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Sepsis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for critically ill patients and the tenth leading cause of death overall.4,5...

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