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Appendix C

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2,3-Diphosphoglycerate:

A compound in red blood cells that affects oxygen binding to and release from hemoglobin.

Ablation:

Destruction of part or all of an organ or structure.

Abscess:

A purulent collection of fluid separated from surrounding tissue by a wall consisting of inflammatory cells and adjacent organs. It usually contains necrotic debris, bacteria, and inflammatory cells.

Absence:

A primary-generalized seizure characterized by sudden and brief (i.e., several seconds in duration) loss of consciousness without muscle movements.

Acanthosis nigricans:

Increased thickness and hyperpigmentation of the outer cell layers of the skin; typically observed at areas of flexure.

Acaricide:

A chemical that kills mites and ticks.

Acetaldehyde:

A hepatotoxic metabolic by-product of alcohol.

Acetylcholine:

The neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting messages between certain nerve cells in the brain.

Achalasia:

Disorder in which the esophageal sphincter is impaired, preventing normal swallowing and often causing reflux of contents and a feeling that something is caught in the throat.

Achlorhydria:

Absence of free hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

Acidemia:

An increase in the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood or a fall below normal in pH.

Acidosis:

Any pathologic state that leads to acidemia.

Acinar cells:

Exocrine glands of the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymes.

Acromegaly:

A pathologic condition characterized by excessive production of growth hormone during adulthood after epiphyseal (long bone) fusions have completed.

Action potential:

A rapid change in the polarity of the voltage of a cell membrane from negative to positive and back to negative; a wave of electrical discharge that travels across a cell membrane.

Acute acid-base disorder:

An acid-base disturbance that has been present for minutes to hours.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS):

Ischemic chest discomfort at rest most often accompanied by ST-segment elevation, ST-segment depression, or T-wave inversion on the 12-lead electrocardiogram; caused by plaque rupture and partial or complete occlusion of the coronary artery by thrombus. Acute coronary syndromes include myocardial infarction and unstable angina.

Acute kidney injury:

Characterized by a rapid decrease in kidney function and the resultant accumulation of nitrogenous waste products (e.g., creatinine and blood urea nitrogen or BUN), with or without a decrease in urine output.

Acute otitis media:

Inflammation of the middle ear accompanied by fluid in the middle ear space and signs or symptoms of an acute ear infection.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS):

Occurs when fluid builds up in the alveoli of the lungs, reducing amount of oxygen delivered to other organs.

Acute tubular necrosis:

Form of acute kidney injury that results from toxic or ischemic injury to the cells in the proximal tubule of the kidney.

Addiction:

A primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over substance use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving.

Adenoma:

A non-malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue that is characterized by glandular structures.

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC):

A gene associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited disorder characterized by ...

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